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Globalization and International Negotiation Dynamics

Globalization and International Negotiation Dynamics

In today's globalized society, where a wide range of actors from diverse areas, including entrepreneurs, engineers, scientists, and humanitarian relief, are involved, international negotiation has grown in importance. However, because negotiation styles vary among cultures, this collaboration may result in miscommunications. Although there is empirical evidence that cultural differences exist in negotiating tendencies, the majority of material accessible to international negotiators is descriptive and does not allow for cross-national comparison. For "out" identity groups, discrimination and disadvantage might result from incomplete information about various nations and informal mediation practices. It is crucial to assess the requirements and objectives of the parties and apply intervention strategies to make mediation more equitable and effective. To guarantee justice for underprivileged groups, the mediation process must consider the common value of equality.

Domestic economic policies and national attitudes towards foreign investment and trade shaped India's approach to and attitude towards the TRIPS discussions. The chapter also discusses India's current perspective on intellectual property protection and how it may use it to further its scientific and economic objectives. The chapter offers strategies for achieving broader acceptance of the TRIPS Agreement and IP protection in general now that it is in effect. With the World Trade Organisation (WTO) established, the Uruguay Round brought about a substantial change in international trade and economic relations by expanding the scope of multilateral trade regulations beyond trading in commodities alone. The establishment of a unified set of trade regulations that extended to services, investments, and intellectual property rights (IPRs) had three major effects on the TRIPS Agreement's development.

To maintain their competitive advantage in the manufacturing sector, industrialized nations, led by the United States, started the Uruguay Round. Representing a wide spectrum of businesses, the talks centred on market penetration, protection, and access to goods and services worldwide. Prioritizing the inclusion of intellectual property rights (IPRs) in discussions were the United States and Japan, with other developed nations following suit. In the early stages of the discussions, the European Communities took a somewhat neutral position. The study shows that a dimensional framework may be used to identify negotiating inclinations, which might differ between nations. This aids in modifying anticipations and maximizing favourable results. Additionally, the framework facilitates cross-national comparison, which enables negotiators to pinpoint possible points of contention and modify their expectations appropriately. To have a more accurate view of oneself, the research also emphasizes how important it is to understand one's inclinations, such as risk-taking. The results underline the difficulty of international negotiations and the fallacy of complicated stereotyping. The study emphasizes how inclusive and successful negotiation techniques are needed.


[1] Michaelowa, Katharina, and Axel Michaelowa. "India as an emerging power in international climate negotiations." Climate Policy 12.5 (2012): 575-590.

[2] Ganesan, Arumugamangalam Venkatachalam. "Negotiating for India." The Making of the TRIPS Agreement. WTO iLibrary, 2015. 211-238.

[3] Maiorano, Diego, Suruchi Thapar?Björkert, and Hans Blomkvist. "Politics as negotiation: Changing caste norms in rural India." Development and Change 53.1 (2022): 217-248.


  • Cultural variations impact international negotiation styles.
  • TRIPS discussions reflect India's economic policies and IP protection strategies.
  • The Uruguay Round expanded multilateral trade regulations, emphasizing intellectual property rights.

BY : Vaishnavi Rastogi

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