Institutional Analysis of Ombudsman
Initially, the entire world was facing the problem of corruption and maladministration, and the adverse effects of was seen on social, economic, political, conditions of every country. The common people were victims of administrative and political corruption. For the purpose to redress the grievances and removal of corruption, the common man had to rely and depend on the bureaucracies who are the enemy complained against. On the account of the inconsistent situation, there was a lack of social justice to the people. It has been generally observed that in developing countries the problem of corruption and maladministration is more acute. There was a drastic change with the establishment of the concept of Ombudsman. There has been a change from the police state to the welfare state and also resulted in a change in state activities. In the earlier days, the Government was only concerned with making laws but now aspects have changed over the period of time it also concerned about the welfare of the people. The growth of the welfare state has also made new protection for the misuse of power and a regular check of authority. Over the past few years countries have adopted various steps and methods to impose public accountability for a public servant. They range from Legislation, Judiciary, Administrative Tribunals.
History and Origin
The word Ombudsman is a Swedish Origin and the Ombudsman Institution was first established in Sweden in the year 1809 in which the Parliament was given the authority to appoint a parliamentary Ombudsman to supervision the administration.
The Institution of Ombudsman took a century to proliferate to other countries like Finland in1919, Denmark in 1955, West Germany in 1961. In India, the concept was Ombudsman was introduced by Lokpal and Lokyutha Act, 2013.
Objectives of Ombudsman
- Established as a separate entity that is functionally autonomous
- Independent from Legislative and executive.
- Ombudsman is a legally established Government official.
- Administration expert and professional
Ombudsman in Public and Private Sector
The scope of Ombudsman was widened over the past few decades, it is not only associated with monitoring the administration but also has penetrated in the public and private sector of different countries.
The banking Ombudsman was first adopted by the United Kingdom in the year 1986. The main aim was to resolve to settle individual complaints relating to the banking services. It had the jurisdiction to inquire about all the major banks. Banking Ombudsman also deals with individuals, sole trader partnership, and also incorporated bodies.
In countries like the United Kingdom and the United States approximately two hundred colleges, universities, and educational institutions have Ombudsman. The object is to deal with the complaints of the students and offer adequate service to the students and parents.
Sweden has a Children Ombudsman which is an independent body. The Children Ombudsman is handling matters at the national and local levels. It is established to protect the rights and interests of children under the age of eighteen.
The concept of Ombudsman has brought a drastic change in the administration, to curb the position of authorities. There was a need for an institution that can effectively deal with the cases of corruption and maladministration and the citizens may turn out without any expense or formality. It also keeps checking on the authorities for misuse of power, over-exercise of Jurisdiction. Thus, the concept plays a very vital role in the eradication of corruption and malpractices. Over the years the scope of Ombudsman has widened focusing on many other fields with an aim to protect the interest of the people.